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Course: Specific XRD topics

The courses are intended for both new and existing users of Empyrean, X’Pert³ Powder (X’Pert Pro MPD) and X’Pert³ MRD diffractometers, who want to get in-depth training in special applications and the corresponding Software packages. It is strongly recommended to have followed the Basic XRD course, or to have a very solid background and hands-on experience in XRD before registering for the application specific courses.

Eight different courses are offered (of which a maximum of 2 can be followed in one week).

HighScore / HighScore Plus (3 days)

This advanced course is intended for both new and existing users of Empyrean and X’Pert³ Powder (X’Pert PRO MPD) diffractometers with a good working knowledge of XRD and preferable experienced with HighScore (Plus). For the new users of PANalytical XRD systems we strongly recommend first to follow the Basic XRD course. The main purpose of the HighScore Plus course is to provide you with the roots of crystallography, which gives a solid base for understanding the Rietveld method. Particular emphasis is put on the hands-on training, starting from the sample preparation and data collection on Empyrean or X’Pert³ Powder to the Rietveld refinement of an XRD pattern using the HighScore Plus software package. The ultimate goal of this course is to help you to establish the most optimal strategy for the analysis of your sample(s). Participants can bring their own ‘problem’ files for refinement and discussion.

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:
• Measurement strategies and set-up of data collection for crystallography
• Data treatment: preparation of data and profile fitting
• Crystallographic symmetry elements, point groups and space groups
• Crystallographic analysis: indexing and unit cell refinement and theoretical basis of the Rietveld method
• Rietveld analysis: simulation of powder diffractograms, entering crystallographic data; refinement of crystal structure data from powder measurements, quantitative phase analysis and refinement strategies
• Optional: quantification of amorphous content, cluster analysis, line profile analysis or structure determination

Quantitative analysis, using X’Pert Quantify software (2 days)

The course is devoted to XRD phase quantification based on the classical calibration line approach using X’Pert Quantify software. It is intended for both industrial and academic users. Basic knowledge of XRD technique is beneficial, however not mandatory. The course consists of both theoretical and practical parts with the emphasis on the hands on training with X’Pert Quantify software. In the duration of the course all steps required for setting up a calibration line (measurements, data extraction, correction routines and calibration itself) using X’Pert Quantify will be covered, different calibration models will be compared. An active contribution of the course participants is encouraged as the ultimate goal of the course is to help users to find a solution to their specific analytical tasks.

The following aspects will be covered during the course:
• Basic theory of XRD quantification using line calibration (not standardless Rietveld method)
• Comparison between quantification models
• Practical aspects of sample preparation and data collection
• Functionality of X’Pert Quantify software
• Set-up of analysis programs, tailored for specific needs, using X’Pert Quantify
• Reporting, tailored for specific needs in X’Pert Quantify

Quantitative and qualitative texture analysis, using X’Pert Texture software module (2 days)

The course is intended for both new and existing users of Empyrean and X’Pert³ MRD diffractometers. For the new users the maximum outcome will be gained if the Texture course is taken after the Basic XRD course. Starting with the basics of texture analysis and overview of the possible instrumental setups for texture measurements, course participants will go through extensive hands-on training covering data collection strategies and data analysis from single pole figure to the calculation of an orientation distribution function (ODF), providing you the most complete information about texturing of your sample(s).

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:
• Measurement strategies and set-up of data collection for pole figure(s), background and defocusing corrections
• Data treatment: visualization and correction of pole figures
• Construction of the Orientation Distribution Function
• Recalculation of pole figures
• Normalization factors

Residual stress analysis, using Stress software module (2 days)

The course is intended for both new and existing users of Empyrean, X’Pert³ Powder or X’Pert³ MRD (X’Pert PRO MPD) systems. For the new users the full advantage of the course will be gain if the Stress course is taken after the Basic XRD course. Theoretical aspects of residual stress analysis using XRD and discussion of possible measurement geometries and instrument setup will be followed by an extended practical sessions. The main purpose of the course is to teach you how to choose and execute the most appropriate measurement and analysis strategy suitable for your sample, starting from sample alignment and data collection to the analysis of the results using the Stress module.

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:
• Fundamentals of residual stress evaluation using XRD
• Measurement strategies and set-up of data collection for residual stress
• Verification and calibration of the set-up with a stress-free sample
• Chi-stress and omega-stress methods

Reflectometry course (3 days)

This course is intended for users seeking to expand their knowledge on thin film analysis. The course covers basic principles and practical aspects of X-ray reflectometry as well as higher skills to analyse details. To help you to get the best possible result out of your analysis, emphasis is placed on selecting the most appropriate hardware and data collection strategies to match your sample. Epitaxy and Reflectivity software will be used to analyze the reflectivity curves and diffraction space maps collected. Simulation of various example structures will be explained and their nature attuned to the interest of the course participants.

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:
• Basic principles of X-ray Reflectometry
• Hardware components and their impact on data quality
• Practical aspects of sample alignment procedure and data collection
• Extracting information from reflectivity curves:
   o Layer thicknesses
   o Density
   o RMS surface and interface roughness
• Interface morphology from diffuse scattering
• Extracting information from reciprocal space maps:
   o Lateral coherence information
   o Vertical coherence information
   o Bragg peaks

Non-ambient XRD with Anton Paar non-ambient chambers (2 days)

The course is intended for both new and existing users of Empyrean, X’Pert³ Powder (X’Pert Pro MPD) or MRD diffractometers. However, for the new users we strongly recommend first to follow the Basic XRD course, to get hands-on experience with PANalytical XRD systems.

Basic principles of XRD measurements at non-ambient conditions and overview of all Anton Paar chambers, will be followed by practical sessions covering sample preparation, instrument setup, data collection and analysis strategies with the focus on your analytical problem(s). Hands-on experience of work with HTK1200N, CHC+ or DHS900 (DHS1100) will be provided.

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:
• Basic principles of XRD at non-ambient conditions
• Sample preparation for non-ambient experiment
• Measurement strategies and set-up of data collection
• Effective use of line and area detectors (PIXcel3D and PIXcel3D 2x2)
• Data analysis strategies

Small Angle X-ray Scattering (EasySAXS) (2 days)

The course is intended for both new and existing users of the Empyrean and X’Pert³ Powder (X’Pert Pro MPD) diffractometers. For the new users the full advantage of this course will be gathered if the SAXS course is taken after the Basic XRD course. Topics include an introduction to the technique, instrument configuration and practical sessions covering sample preparation, data collection and data analysis using the EasySAXS software package. The main purpose of this course is to help you to solve your analytical problem in the most effective way.

In the duration of the course the following aspects will be covered, both in interactive lectures and in practical sessions:
• Introduction to the SAXS technique
• Instrument setup
• Sample preparation
• Data collection strategies
• Data analysis with EasySAXS (Automatic and Interactive Modes)

Atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) (2 days)

The course is intended for both new and existing users of Empyrean and X’Pert³ Powder (X’Pert Pro MPD) diffractometers. For the new users of PANalytical XRD systems, the full advantage of this course will be gained if PDF course is taken after the Basic XRD course.

The main purpose of the course is to provide you with the basic knowledge of the theoretical aspects of PDF analysis and their practical realization on Empyrean or X’Pert³ Powder (or X’Pert Pro MPD) system. Measurement strategies and possible instrument geometries will be discussed. The hands-on part will be mainly focused on the data collection with the fast GaliPIX3D detector and the data treatment of the data collected during the course and on few available examples.

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:
• Basics of the PDF technique
• Measurement strategies, possible instrument setups
• Optimal choice of optical components
• Sample preparation
• Data collection with the fast GaliPIX3D detector
• Data treatment and calculation of the PDF
• Analysis of the PDF curves

Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) on Empyrean (2 days)

This course is intended for Empyrean users with some knowledge of X-ray diffraction and X-ray scattering, especially X-ray reflectivity. The course covers technique used to study nanostructured layers and thin films by means of grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) techniques.

Greatest benefit can be derived from the course after the instrument has been installed at the user site and the participant has had an opportunity to become acquainted with the equipment.

The course will provide both the basic theoretical concepts of grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering technique, as well as experimental practices using Empyrean system. Special emphasis will be placed on instrument handling and sample alignment optimization. The capabilities and limitations of the technique for thin film materials analysis will be described. Further the basic analyzation on the generated 2D data will be discussed.

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:
• Basic principles of GISAXS
• System preparation and setting up GISAXS application
• Hardware components and their impact on data quality
• Practical aspects of alignment procedures
• Basics of data treatment and analyzation using XRD2DScan software

Computed Tomography (CT) (2 days)

The course is intended for both new and existing users of Empyrean diffractometer. For the new users of PANalytical XRD systems, it is advised to follow the CT course after attending the Basic XRD course.

The main purpose of the course is to provide the participants with the basics of CT, 3D reconstruction and their practical realization on an Empyrean system. Measurement strategies and possible instrument geometries will be discussed. The hands-on part will be equally focused on performing the experiment and the data analysis. Special attention will be paid to the sample preparation steps and performing the measurements (optimization of sample dimensions, generator and detector settings,…).

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:
• Basics of the CT technique
• Possible instrument configurations
• Performing the CT experiment
• 3D reconstruction
• Basics of visualization and analysis of the reconstructed object

Click here for an overview of all current XRD courses in Almelo, the Netherlands.

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