"We are very proud of our new XRD instrument, which not only enables the most sophisticated analyses but also attracts many students who can be educated very well in the art of X-ray diffraction analysis."

Dr. Georgi Avdeev, head of the XRD Laboratory at IPC-BAS

Research and education at the ‘Rostislav Kaischev’ Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

The XRD Laboratory is part of the Institute of Physical Chemistry at BAS and has a long tradition in the application of X-ray diffraction methods. In the 1960s the lab purchased new research equipment and chose the most modern and suitable X-ray diffractometer from Philips, which included a Müller Micro 111 generator, a PW1050 goniometer and a number of attachments e.g. for texture measurements or the determination of residual stress, a spinner and several cameras.

Composition and geometry of carbon anodes strongly influence the energy consumption during electrolysis and are thus of utmost importance for a cost-effective process. This is where R&D Carbon’s expertise plays a crucial role. Besides know-how and advice on all aspects of anode production, the company provides also equipment and services for testing and analyzing the stages in the life of a carbon electrode. Whenever there is a quality problem, RDC can provide help: from compositional analysis of the source material to the measurement of crystallite size in the finished anode.

This diffractometer has been maintained and updated on a regular basis and has served as an extremely reliable and versatile workhorse for many complex research projects. About 7 years ago PANalytical’s Bas ter Mull was able to arrange the donation of a second-hand generator as backup for/ addition to the old Micro Müller 111 generator. Both old systems are still in use today for standard phase analysis, education and training.

In 2013 the XRD lab received funds from the ‘Development of the Competitiveness of the Bulgarian Economy’ program (financed by the Structural Funds of the European Union), for the purchase of a wellequipped Empyrean multipurpose XRD platform. Following installation, PANalytical’s Milen Gateshki gave extensive training to the users in their own language, introducing them to a large variety of applications.

The new system is extremely versatile and enables easy transition between different applications such as grazing incidence diffraction, XRD texture investigations and diffraction from details or parts of large objects, and it includes attachments for the investigation of fast processes at high temperatures.

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS)

Founded in 1869, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) is located in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. The Academy publishes and circulates scientific works, encyclopedias, dictionaries and journals. It consists of many independent scientific institutes and laboratories in natural sciences as well as social sciences and art.

One of the most prestigious research institutes of BAS is the Institute of Physical Chemistry (IPC), established in 1958 by the renowned Bulgarian physicochemist Rostislav Kaishev, one of the founders of present day crystal growth science.

At present 90 researchers and 10 PhD students research phase formation, crystalline and amorphous materials, interface and colloid science and electrochemistry and corrosion processes.