In materials with nanoscale dimensions the surface or interface properties dominate over the bulk properties. The very large surface area of these materials may result in novel physical and chemical properties, such as increased catalytic activity, improved solubility or different optical behavior.
Nanomaterials comprise various types of nanoobjects, namely nanoparticles, nanorods or nanoplates. They may also refer to nanostructured materials, such as nanocomposites, nanoparticle dispersions, nanofilms, core-shell particles and mesoporous materials. Used to enhance the performance of products and technologies, nanomaterials are already found in a wide variety of consumer products, such as textiles, paints, sunscreens and other healthcare products. Intensive research is being done in the use of nanomaterials for energy storage and energy conversion, pharmaceuticals, life science applications, solar cells, catalysis, and composite materials, to name a few.
X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques are powerful and versatile nanometrology tools that allow to reveal and verify dimensions and structures in all types of nanomaterials. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is used to determine elemental compositions, e.g. the concentration of doping agents.
PANalytical's range of X-ray instrumentation offers powerful solutions for nanomaterial characterization.