Knowledge center



Beyond Cu: The many colors of X-rays - selecting the best X-ray tube for your analysis

Modern laboratory diffractometers are designed to operate with X-ray tubes that may have many different types of anodes: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Ag, and more. The X-ray tube anode determines the wavelength of radiation that is produced for measurements. Despite the wide selection of anodes available, contemporary literature is dominated by research that uses Cu wavelength X-rays for powder diffraction and scattering studies—so much so that some researchers mistakenly believe it is the only choice because "everybody else uses it". While Cu anode X-ray tubes have always been widely used in laboratory diffractometers, literature provides many examples of measurements that benefited from the use of other wavelengths of radiation, including synchrotrons and neutron beamlines.


XRF: Theory, Techniques and Capabilities

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a powerful technique for the analysis of elemental compositions of solid, powdered and liquid materials. It can deliver high precision, quantitative results for both process control and completely unknown samples using purpose built calibrations. High quality results can also be obtained using powerful standardless analysis software. This webinar covers the basics of the technique, extent of its capabilities, instrument types, and touches on the important topic of sample preparation. The webinar is geared toward those with little or no experience with XRF wishing to learn more.

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