(Nano)material analysis on multiple length scales
Like no other lab instrument on the market, the Empyrean Nano edition covers Bragg spacings from
sub-Ångströms to micron(s) and a scattering vector q-range spanning over almost five decades - without any gaps.
Small-angle X-ray scattering
SAXS is the main application on the Empyrean Nano edition. It is one of the most versatile tools to analyze nanoscale structures and dimensions on a variety of sample types (liquids, powders, solids, gels...). Samples may be amorphous, crystalline or semi-crystalline.
Typical samples that can be investigated with SAXS include colloidal dispersions, surfactants, polymers, biomacromolecules, membranes, nanocomposites, nanopowders and porous materials. The orientation of anisotropic nanoscale structures can be investigated by measuring 2D SAXS patterns.
SAXS on biomacromolecules
Small-angle X-ray scattering applied to dilute protein solutions has become an accepted and rapidly growing structural biology technique. It provides information e.g. about the overall protein size and shape, folding and unfolding, aggregation behavior, stability and molecular weight. Measurements can be done under near native conditions, and under variation of e.g. protein concentration, pH, ionic strength or temperature. SAXS ultimately also allows for a low-resolution molecular shape envelope reconstruction and thus delivers information that is complementary to that obtained from single crystal XRD or NMR.
PANalytical's EasySAXS software is available for basic bio-SAXS data analysis. Data can be exported in a format that is compatible with the EMBL ATSAS software, which can be used for 3D protein shape reconstruction and other advanced tasks.
Wide-angle X-ray scattering
Based on the diffraction pattern measured at the higher angles one can identify and quantify crystalline phases that are present in a given sample, as well as estimate the size of nanocrystallites. The orientation of the crystal lattice in anisotropic structures, e.g. in polymers, can be investigated by measuring 2D WAXS patterns.
Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering
For the characterization of samples containing particles or structural features in the size range of several hundreds of nanometers the resolution of a conventional SAXS setup is insufficient. On the Empyrean Nano edition high-resolution optics in combination with the high-resolution goniometer enable for accessing ultra-small angles, down to as low as 0.005 deg 2theta. The characteristic oscillations in the scattering curve from highly monodisperse particles can be readily resolved, even with a particle diameter as large as
The combination of USAXS with SAXS/WAXS and PDF measurements on the Empyrean Nano edition uniquely enables for the characterization of hierarchical structures on multiple length scales, covering Bragg spacings from sub-Ångström to micron(s).
Total scattering experiments use hard X-ray radiation and scans up to very high 2theta angles so as to acquire data up to highest possible scattering vectors. From the deduced atomic pair distribution function (PDF) the short-range atomic order in nanocrystalline and disordered materials can be deduced.
The Empyrean Nano edition equipped with the GaliPIX3D detector and with effective anti-scatter devices enables for obtaining very high-quality experimental data, and optionally under non-ambient conditions. Results are in good agreement with those that are obtained at synchrotron radiation facilities.
Add more applications
- also as later upgrades
Depending on your specific research interest the Empyrean Nano edition can be further upgraded, e.g. by adding thin film techniques such as GISAXS and X-ray reflectivity, classical powder X-ray diffraction or computed tomography. PANalytical also constantly develops additional options, improvements and analytical solutions that are back-compatible with the existing PANalytical instrument platforms.